Grammar and Vocabulary
                        Confusing words and expressions Prefixes, suffixes, spelling and pronunciation
                        Determiners, nouns and pronouns Adjectives and adverbs
                        Verbs and tenses Modals and conditionals
                        Conjunctions and clauses Prepositions and phrases
                        Learning and exam skills
                         
                        CONFUSING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS
                         
                          Situation / Position / Condition
                         
                          Animal idioms
                         
                          no = not / not any
                         
                          seem, appear and look
                         
                          Learning and using synonyms
                         
                          Mother tongue, honeymoon and a small amount of gold
                         
                          Colour idioms
                         
                          afraid/scared/terrifying
                         
                          take care / take a look: verb + noun collocations with take
                         
                          faults, flaws, weaknesses and drawbacks
                         
                          Idiomatic pairs
                         
                          Teacher/trainer/instructor/lecturer
                         
                          Discourse markers
                         
                          British measures: feet, inches,
                         
                          kinds / types / sorts / varieties (of music)
                         
                          See and Watch
                         
                          Numbers
                         
                          'well off' and 'better off'?
                         
                          'lend' or 'borrow'?
                         
                          'say' or 'tell'?
                         
                          'make' or 'do'?
                         
                          'approve' or 'approve of'?
                         
                          'hire' or 'rent'? 'rise' or 'raise'?'drive' or 'ride'?
                         
                          'efficient'or'effective'?
                         
                          'lie' or 'lay'?
                         
                          'lack' as a verb and a noun
                         
                          'house' or 'home'?
                         
                          'sport' or 'game'?
                         
                          'partner' or 'boyfriend'?
                         
                          'effect' or 'affect'?
                         
                          'say' or 'tell'?
                         
                          'hope' and 'wish'
                         
                          'equipment', 'utensil', 'tool'and 'apparatus'
                         
                          'solicitor', 'lawyer', 'attorney','barrister', 'counsellor'
                         
                          'nail bombs'
                         
                          judging something 'on its merits'
                         
                          greetings and farewells
                         
                          'get' and 'become'
                         
                          same or different? 'used to/get used to'?
                         
                          'adjective-noun collocations'
                         
                          rather and better?
                         
                          wedding or marriage?
                         
                          'either', 'neither' and 'too'
                         
                          head,feet,legs,brain,mind
                         
                          health and illness idioms
                         
                          'skin' and 'bones' idioms
                         
                          '-ed' and '-ing' adjectives
                         
                          confusing pairs
                         
                          'come' or 'go'? 'bring' or 'take'?
                         
                          confusing road signs
                         
                          'hot dog' and 'hat trick'
                         
                          idioms involving 'clouds' or 'sky'
                         
                          verbs + adverbial particles
                         
                          'let' or 'leave'
                         
                          do/did/done
                         
                          suppose / supposed to
                         
                          horrible / horrific
                         
                          entertainment idioms
                         
                          melt, thaw and antonyms
                         
                          synonyms for 'I (don't) understand
                         
                          slang, idiomatic expressions and euphemisms
                         
                          'switch' and 'change'
                         
                          job applications and 'cover'
                         
                          job title suffixes
                         
                          neck and nose idioms
                         
                          miss, missing, missed
                         
                          /wound/hurt/harm/damage as verbs/adjectives/nouns
                         
                          countable or uncountable?
                         
                          parts of the body
                         
                          'Meetings'/etc...
                         
                          remind-remember/recall/recollect
                         
                          'travel/trips/journeys/etc'
                         
                          Idioms based on food and drink
                         
                          Kinship Idioms
                         
                          ensure, assure, insure
                         
                          emotions idioms - anger
                         
                          'dress, wear, put on'
                         
                          relations and relationships
                         
                          rise, arise and raise
                         
                          Told or asked?
                         
                          last/take
                         
                          'take' - expressions
                         
                          look forward to / agree to / object to
                         
                          expressing views and opinions
                         
                          'calling' and 'kidding'
                         
                          'hold or keep'
                         
                         
                         
                        PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION
                         
                          possessives or compound nouns?
                         
                          Colons and semi-colons, dashes and brackets
                         
                          Flammable/inflammable & prefixes
                         
                          -ive, -ous, -ful, -ic, -able, -al, -y, -ible
                         
                          suffixes: -less, -free
                         
                          possessive apostrophes
                         
                          apostrophe 's with plural nouns
                         
                          'its' and 'it's'
                         
                          hyphenated nouns; adjectives and prefixes
                         
                          hyphenated adjectives; '-ise' and '-ize'
                         
                          using commas, semi-colons and colons
                         
                          spelling quiz: 'aging' or 'ageing'?
                         
                          spelling and pronunciation
                         
                          negative auxilliary verbs: contracted forms; pronunciation
                         
                          parts of the body
                         
                          a/an and the: pronunciation
                         
                          spelling and pronunciation / silent letters
                         
                          tag questions
                         
                          punctuation and pausing
                         
                         
                         
                        DETERMINERS, NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
                         
                          noun-verb agreement
                         
                          no = not a / not any
                         
                          article or no article?
                         
                          this/that - these/those - here/there
                         
                          different uses of 'any'
                         
                          'the', 'a' and 'an'
                         
                          indefinite and zero articles
                         
                          using articles with geographical names
                         
                          articles, possessives and demonstratives
                         
                          apostrophes: 'its' and 'it's';'ones' and 'one's'
                         
                          'so do I.'/ 'me too'
                         
                          'such' and 'so'
                         
                          'much', 'many', 'lots of' and subject-verb agreement
                         
                          subject-verb agreement with countable nouns
                         
                          double negatives
                         
                          relative pronouns: 'who' or 'whom'?
                         
                          using 'the' correctly
                         
                          reflexive pronouns
                         
                          'each' and 'every'
                         
                          'either'/'neither'/'too'
                         
                          'any' and 'no'
                         
                          subject/verb agreement
                         
                          'amount', 'quantity', 'number'
                         
                          it/this/that
                         
                          it to identify people
                         
                          compound nouns
                         
                          plural nouns
                         
                          'what or which'
                         
                          job title suffixes
                         
                          'there' and 'is' as preparatory subjects
                         
                          'the' or zero article?
                         
                          a/an and the: pronunciation
                         
                          too much/many, fewer/less, little, as much as
                         
                          nouns+prepositions
                         
                          what or that? and noun-verb collocations
                         
                          noun + to- infinitive clause
                         
                          noun suffixes
                         
                          possessive 's or of + noun?
                         
                          'that' and 'then'
                         
                          the definite article: context-specific and with abstract nouns
                         
                          uncountable nouns
                         
                          fewer or less
                         
                          you and me / you and I
                         
                          every/all
                         
                          countable and uncountable nouns with different meanings
                         
                          'The' with place names: rules and exceptions
                         
                         
                         
                        ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
                         
                          'Before' and 'ago'
                         
                          Participles as adjectives
                         
                          enough / sufficient / adequate
                         
                          Adverb and adjective collocations
                         
                          'incredible' and 'unbelievable'
                         
                          'efficient' or 'effective'
                         
                          'busy with' or 'busy about'?
                         
                          adjectival prefixes: un-, in- or im-?
                         
                          adjectival suffixes: -ive, -ous or -ful?
                         
                          adjectival suffixes: -less or -free?
                         
                          'good' or 'well'?
                         
                          using 'as well'
                         
                          using 'besides'
                         
                          'for example' and 'for instance'
                         
                          using 'so'
                         
                          inversion after negative expressions and 'only'
                         
                          'how long?', 'how often?' and 'how many times?'
                         
                          using 'ever'
                         
                          'formation and use of adjectives' just or only
                         
                          adjectives: appropriate/suitable and adequate/sufficient/enough
                         
                          'hardly', 'hardly ever', hardly any'
                         
                          'even if', 'even though'
                         
                          'ed' and '-ing' as adjectives
                         
                          time expressions with 'next', 'last' and 'on'
                         
                          adjectives: position
                         
                          'yet': adverb or conjunction
                         
                          though / as though / like
                         
                          comparative and superlative forms
                         
                          emphasizing adverbs
                         
                          as....as
                         
                          expressing possibility: maybe, perhaps, may and might
                         
                          plural nouns
                         
                          hardly/scarcely, neither/nor, so/too
                         
                          quite
                         
                          concern/concerned/concerning
                         
                          on / off
                         
                          future forms: comparatives and superlatives
                         
                          being
                         
                          position of adverbs
                         
                          too much/many, fewer/less, little, as much as
                         
                          however/nevertheless/moreover
                         
                          irregular adjectives and adverbs
                         
                          -ed adjectives
                         
                          compound adjectives
                         
                          time expressions, adjectives and adverbs
                         
                          'Always' and 'ever'
                         
                          -ed and -ing adjectives
                         
                          actually/in fact/well
                         
                          yet/still/already
                         
                          especially/specially & continuously/continually
                         
                          adjectives with -er/-est, more/most, less/least in comparative/superlative
                         
                          so, such and so on
                         
                          'worth/worthwhile'
                         
                          likely to
                         
                          adverbials
                         
                          inversion
                         
                         
                         
                        VERBS AND TENSES
                         
                          unreal uses of past forms
                         
                          'say' and 'tell' in reported speech
                         
                          have had / had had
                         
                          wouldn't/would & won't/will for refusals and insistence
                         
                          planned future actions
                         
                          the passive with modals, future and infinitive forms
                         
                          short answers and question tags
                         
                          doubling final consonants
                         
                          we are to / we are not to
                         
                          have / have got
                         
                          present perfect with 'for' and 'since'
                         
                          forming questions with do/does and is/are
                         
                          see / feel / like & love in progressive form
                         
                          Choosing the right tense in indirect speech
                         
                          Phrasal verbs: five different structures
                         
                          do as auxiliary verb
                         
                          primary auxiliary verbs: 'do' and 'have'
                         
                          'up' and 'down' in phrasal verbs
                         
                          'to do' and 'to have done'
                         
                          lots to do with 'do'
                         
                          'happen' and 'happen to'
                         
                          tenses of 'lie' or 'lay'
                         
                          past simple and past perfect: 'have' and 'had'
                         
                          past tense endings
                         
                          'used to' or past simple?
                         
                          present perfect simple and continuous
                         
                          will/shall/would/should
                         
                          'been' or 'gone'?
                         
                          inverted word order in questions and statements
                         
                          reported/indirect speech
                         
                          'must', 'need' and 'used to' in reported speech
                         
                          the passive
                         
                          prepositional and phrasal verbs
                         
                          'to' or '-ing'?
                         
                          contractions: 'aren't', 'haven't', 'isn't'
                         
                          'will', 'shall', 'would' and 'should'
                         
                          'don't' and 'do not'
                         
                          'present perfect and past simple'
                         
                          reporting verbs
                         
                          be able + infinitive
                         
                          be to + infinitive
                         
                          the subjunctive
                         
                          participial or relative clause
                         
                          verb + two objects
                         
                          have+object+infinitive/-ing
                         
                          question tags+imperative
                         
                          the passive
                         
                          stative verbs
                         
                          American/British verbs
                         
                          subject/verb agreement
                         
                          'would' in conversation
                         
                          'get, plus past
                         
                          verbs + adverbial particles
                         
                          'let' or 'leave'
                         
                          'like' as verb and preposition
                         
                          reporting questions, suggestions, advice and instructions
                         
                          expressing possibility: perhaps, maybe, may and might
                         
                          'gonna', 'wanna', 'gotta' and 'dunno'
                         
                          present perfect
                         
                          change of time/tense in reported speech
                         
                          concern/concerned/concerning
                         
                          auxiliary verbs; contracted forms: pronunciation
                         
                          past tenses
                         
                          future forms: comparatives and superlatives
                         
                          could, was able to and managed to
                         
                          being
                         
                          suggest, recommend, insist, demand
                         
                          subject-verb inversion in questions
                         
                          past simple and past perfect
                         
                          The future
                         
                          Hear, see, make, let, allow + object + verb form
                         
                          present perfect with just, already, ever and yet
                         
                          what or that? and noun-verb collocations
                         
                          Bare infinitive
                         
                          Verbs and tenses
                         
                          past simple and present perfect
                         
                          intransitive and transitive verbs
                         
                          have to do and to have done
                         
                          reporting the future
                         
                          get (for transport) + preposition or adverb particle
                         
                          get + preposition or adverb particle
                         
                          ever and in time expressions
                         
                          time expressions and tenses
                         
                          dare and need - auxiliary verbs
                         
                          'be to'
                         
                          for + verb-ing'
                         
                          'used to' or 'would'
                         
                          expressing wishes in the past, present and future
                         
                         
                         
                        MODALS AND CONDITIONALS
                         
                          Third conditional
                         
                          Mixed conditionals
                         
                          Inversion in conditional sentences
                         
                          'Needn't have' and 'didn't need to'
                         
                          'if-clauses' and containing 'will', 'will'
                         
                          'must' as deduction and obligation
                         
                          'must', 'need' and 'used to' in reported speech
                         
                          'first and second conditionals; 'should' instead of 'if'
                         
                          'using 'as long as'
                         
                          'will', 'shall', 'would' and 'should'
                         
                          'could have', 'would have' and 'should have'
                         
                          'if I was' and 'if I were'
                         
                          'hope' and 'wish'
                         
                          'must', 'have to', 'have got to'
                         
                          'would' in conversation
                         
                          general and future condition and 'have got to'
                         
                          should , would and could
                         
                          What if / suppose / supposing
                         
                          when and if & in case and if
                         
                         
                         
                        CONJUNCTIONS AND CLAUSES
                         
                          though, even though and even so
                         
                          Omitting that
                         
                          Using 'What...like?' and 'How...?'
                         
                          Affirmative word order in questions
                         
                          Which or that
                         
                          'Since' as preposition, conjunction and adverb
                         
                          as / while / as long as
                         
                          'preposition + relative pronoun'
                         
                          'unless' and 'otherwise'
                         
                          'whenever', 'wherever and etc'
                         
                          'though' and 'although'; 'despite' and 'in spite of'
                         
                          'while' and 'whereas'
                         
                          'because', 'as', 'since' and 'for'
                         
                          'yet' and 'but', 'so' and 'hence'
                         
                          'as well as' and 'as long as'
                         
                          'as' and 'like'
                         
                          inversion after negative expressions
                         
                          participial or relative clause
                         
                          'even if', 'even though'
                         
                          'yet': adverb or conjunction
                         
                          though / as though / like
                         
                          'by' and 'from'
                         
                          'in order to' and 'so that'
                         
                          'wh'-questions
                         
                          cleft sentences
                         
                          as... as
                         
                          but as conjunction and preposition
                         
                          'for' and 'during'
                         
                          when or if? if or whether?
                         
                          being
                         
                          what or that? and noun-verb collocations
                         
                          What if / suppose / supposing
                         
                          subordinating and coordinating conjunctions
                         
                          when/while/meanwhile
                         
                          when and if & in case and if
                         
                          Linking adverbs
                         
                          alternatives to 'if'
                         
                          participle clauses
                         
                         
                         
                        PREPOSITIONS AND PHRASES
                         
                          'at', 'on' and 'in'
                         
                          'good at' or 'good in'?
                         
                          'beside'/'besides' and 'toward'/'towards'
                         
                          'since' and 'for'
                         
                          'despite' and 'in spite of'
                         
                          'with regard to' and 'regarding'
                         
                          'due to', 'owing to', 'on account of' and 'because of'
                         
                          'as' and 'like'
                         
                          'busy with' or 'busy about'
                         
                          prepositional and phrasal verbs
                         
                          'on', 'in', or 'at' midnight?
                         
                          time expressions with 'next', 'last' and 'on'
                         
                          though / as though / like
                         
                          'like' as verb and preposition
                         
                          as... as
                         
                          but as conjunction and preposition
                         
                          'for' and 'during'
                         
                          prepositions in time expressions
                         
                          concern/concerned/concerning
                         
                          on / off
                         
                          in front of / before/ across
                         
                          prepositions for common nouns without articles
                         
                          time and place phrases with at, in and on
                         
                          during, for, by, until with time phrases with at, in and on
                         
                          for/to
                         
                         
                         
                        LEARNING AND EXAM SKILLS
                         
                          choosing a dictionary
                         
                          extending your vocabulary
                         
                          improving your skills by reading
                         
                          vocabulary and reading skills
                         
                          classroom activity: activating vocabulary
                         
                          how can listening skills be improved?
                         
                          learning styles and preferences
                         
                          how can I improve my accent?
                         
                          how will I pass my English exam?
                         
                          CAE, CPE and FCE exams
                         
                          IELTS English tests
                         
                          the IELTS writing test
                         
                          answering long essay questions
                         
                          business letters
                         
                          job applications and 'cover'
                         
                          future forms: comparatives and superlatives; interlinked learning activities
                         
                          however/nevertheless/moreover
                         
                          spelling errors and typos
                         
                          netiquette
                         
                          reading comprehension
                         
                          preparing for a speaking test at an advanced level
                         
                          problems and troubles
                         
                         
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